Records of Tilletia controversa in Australia are misidentifications of Tilletia trabutii. Smut on barley grass (Critesion spp.) in Australia and other countries was attributed to Tilletia controversa for many years (Vánky and Shivas 2008). However, molecular and morphological criteria show that smut of barley grass in Australia is not caused by Tilletia controversa but by Tilletia trabutii (Vánky and Shivas 2008). In Europe and North America, Tilletia controversa causes dwarf bunt on winter wheat, but this dwarf bunt has never been reported to occur on wheat in Australia (Vánky and Shivas 2008).