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Contaminating pest A pest that is carried by a commodity, packaging, conveyance or container, or present in a storage place and that, in the case of plants and plant products, does not infest them [CEPM, 1996; revised CEPM, 1999; CPM, 2018]

Contamination Presence of a contaminating pest or unintended presence of a regulated article in or on a commodity, packaging, conveyance, container or storage place [CEPM, 1997; revised ICPM, 1999; CPM, 2018]

Regulated article Any plant, plant product, storage place, packaging, conveyance, container, soil and any other organism, object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, deemed to require phytosanitary measures, particularly where international transportation is involved [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997] (ISPM5 Glossary of phytosanitary terms)

  • Sea Container
    This webpage provides the history of the CPM decisions on Sea Containers and a link to IMO/ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTU Code). The CTU Code, a joint publication of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), addresses these concerns through a non-mandatory global code of practice for the handling and packing of shipping containers for transportation by sea and land.
  • CPM-11 Special Session on Sea Containers
    A special topics session on the issue of sea containers was held during the CPM11 . Presentations were given by NPPOs, relevant international organizations and stakeholders involved in the movement of sea containers. The presentations outlined the complex logistics of the movement of sea containers and the potential risk of the spread of pests.

IPPC Guides and training materials

  • Guidelines on Sea Container Surveys for National Plant Protection Organizations
    This Guidelines provide guidance to national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) on how to inspect and record contamination details in a consistent and harmonized manner when undertaking the sea container cleanliness surveys. The Guidelines have been developed by the Sea Container Task Force (SCTF) - a sub-group of the IPPC Implementation and Capacity Development Committee (IC). The Guidelines and accompanying excel sheets for recording and reporting information, as well as building a database useful for analysis are available in all FAO languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian and Chinese).
  • Reducing the spread of invasive pests by sea containers, IPPC Factsheet
    The IPPC leaflet has been developed on the basis of the IPPC guidance entitled 'Sea containers supply chains and cleanliness: an IPPC best practices guidance in measures to minimize pest contamination'. The publication showcases how keeping containers and cargos clean can reduce the spread of invasive plant pests and diseases by illustrating all the recommended actions to be taken at key interchange points to protect plant health. Available in all FAO languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian and Chinese).
  • Sea container supply chains and cleanliness: an IPPC best practice guide on measures to minimize pest contamination
    This IPPC Guidance identifies the key parties involved in the international container supply chains, and describes their roles and responsibilities for minimizing visible pest contamination of sea containers and their cargoes, and best practices they may follow to meet that objective.
  • IPPC Guidance on Sea Container Cleanliness
    This publication is intended to raise awareness of the issue by national plant protection organizations, border protection agencies, shippers, global shipping companies. It promotes the cleaning and inspection of sea containers and encourages everyone involved in moving containers to ensure that containers and their cargo are free from plant pests.

Contributed resources

This web page was last updated on 2022-10-27. For further information please contact [email protected] .


This reference standard is a listing of terms and definitions with specific meaning for phytosanitary systems worldwide. It has been developed to provide a harmonized internationally agreed vocabulary associated with the implementation of the IPPC and ISPMs.

Country information

The country page shows the contact information of the IPPC Official Contact Points of the IPPC Contracting Parties and local contacts of non-Contracting parties and Territories. Under the contact information, it lists the public national reporting obligations which shall be reported by the contracting parties via this Country page. These obligations include reporting of (1)Designation of an Official IPPC Contact Point, (2)Description of the NPPO, (3)Phytosanitary requirements, restrictions & prohibitions, (4)List of entry points, (5)List of regulated pest, (6)Pest report and (7)Emergency action.

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