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Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (citrus canker) – 2018 detection update

old revision
Publication Date
Fri, 22 Nov 2019, 02:23
Last Updated
Nov. 22, 2019, 2:23 a.m.
Report Number
Pest Id
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri - (XANTCI)
Report Status
Wide host range, primarily Citrus spp., Fortunella spp. and Poncirus spp. Examples include: Citrus aurantiifolia (lime; Mexican lime), Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus hystrix (kaffir lime; mauritius bitter orange), Citrus latifolia (tahitian lime), Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree), Citrus limon (lemon), Citrus maxima (pummelo), Citrus reshni (Cleopatra mandarin), Citrus reticulata (mandarin), Citrus sinensis (navel orange), Citrus sunki (sour mandarin), Citrus tankan (tankan mandarin) and Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit).
Pest Status (old values from ISPM 8 -1998 )
  • Absent: no pest records
  • Absent: pest eradicated
  • Present: under eradication
Pest Status (ISPM 8 - 2021)
  • Absent: pest eradicated
  • Absent: pest not recorded
  • Present: not widely distributed and under official control
Geographical Distribution
Darwin and Katherine, Northern Territory

In April 2018, Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (citrus canker) was detected in the Northern Territory and Western Australia on potted West Indian lime plants linked to retail nurseries.

In November 2019, after completion of the recommended tracing and surveillance activities, absence of citrus canker has been declared for all Australian states and territories except the Northern Territory.

The Northern Territory continues approved activities to eradicate the bacterium and demonstrate Proof of Freedom.

Pest Status:

Present: under eradication - Northern Territory

Absent: pest eradicated - Western Australia, Queensland

Absent: no pest record - New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia

Synonyms Xanthomonas smithii subsp. citri Gabriel et al., 1989, Schaad et al., 2007 Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al., 1995 Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse, 1915) Gabriel et al., 1989 Xanthomonas campestris pv. aurantifolii Gabriel et al., 1989 Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse) Dye, 1978 Xanthomonas citri f.sp. aurantifoliae Namekata and Oliveira, 1972 Pseudomonas citri Hasse, 1915

Citrus canker is a contagious disease caused by the bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri which can affect all citrus species and cultivars. The disease presents as lesions or cankers at infection sites and severely impacts fruit quality and yield. Premature fruit drop can occur, along with defoliation, twig dieback and general tree decline. In severe cases, it can lead to tree death.
Contact for info
Australian Chief Plant Protection Officer Australian Government Department of Agriculture GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT 2601 [email protected]
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