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Euwallacea fornicatus (polyphagous shot-hole borer, PSHB) in Western Australia

Publication Date
Wed, 03 Nov 2021, 22:22
Last Updated
Nov. 3, 2021, 10:22 p.m.
Report Number
Pest Id
Euwallacea fornicatus - (XYLBFO)
Report Status
Euwallacea fornicatus belongs to the Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, which includes three other species that are almost morphologically identical (Smith et al. 2019). The species complex has been reported from more than 400 host plant species in 75 families, of which more than 100 are reported as reproductive hosts (Gomez et al. 2019). Host plants specifically identified for Euwallacea fornicatus have been separated from the species complex by Smith, Beaver & Cognato (2020). These hosts include Acacia, Acer, Ailanthus, Albizia, Alnus, Bauhinia, Callerya, Erythrina, Eucalyptus, Ficus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Persea, Platanus, Populus, Prunus, Quercus, Ricinus, Robinia, Salix, Sambucus, Schinus and Ulmus. Examples of reproductive hosts of concern include Acacia spp., Acer spp., Persea americana, Platanus × acerifolia, and Quercus spp. References: Gomez, DF, Lin, W, Gao, L & Li, Y 2019, ‘New host plant records for the Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) species complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across its natural and introduced distribution’, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 338-40. Smith, SM, Beaver, RA & Cognato, AI 2020, ‘A monograph of the Xyleborini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) of the Indochinese peninsula (except Malaysia) and China’, ZooKeys, vol. 983, pp. 1-438. Smith, SM, Gomez, DF, Beaver, RA, Hulcr, J & Cognato, AI 2019, ‘Reassessment of the Species in the Euwallacea Fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Complex after the Rediscovery of the “Lost” Type Specimen’, Insects, vol. 10, no. 9, p. 261.
Pest Status (ISPM 8 - 2021)
  • Present: not widely distributed and under official control
Geographical Distribution
Perth, Western Australia

In August 2021, Euwallacea fornicatus was detected at a residential premise in Perth, Western Australia, infesting a box-elder maple tree (Acer negundo). Further delimiting surveillance has detected the pest in the surrounding suburban area on multiple hosts including Acer saccharum, Delonix regia, Erythrina sp., Mangifera indica, and Sapindus sp. A Quarantine Area has been established to restrict movement, contain the pest, and delimiting surveillance is ongoing. Synonyms: Xyleborus fornicatus Eichhoff, 1868; Xyleborus tapatapaoensis Schedl, 1951; Xyleborus whitfordiodendrus Schedl, 1942

Euwallacea fornicatus attacks a wide range of host trees and has been reported to cause damage to commercial, urban and natural vegetation. The females of E. fornicatus introduce and cultivate symbiotic fungal species in the gallery of the borer holes, which serve as the food source for larvae throughout their development. Fusarium euwallaceae is the fungal species commonly associated with E. fornicatus. However, other species of fungi including Graphium euwallaceae and Paracremonium pembeum, have also been reported in association with E. fornicatus. The insects and fungal associates together cause branch dieback and mortality in a broad range of host trees, as they invade the trees vascular tissue. Testing is underway to confirm a Fusarium sp. that has been associated with this detection.
Contact for info
Australian Chief Plant Protection Officer Australian Government Department of Agriculture GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT 2601 [email protected]
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