Three international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPMs) on pest risk analysis (PRA) have been developed and adopted by the Commision on Phytosanitary Measures (CPM) : ISPM No. 2 (2007): Framework for pest risk analysis ISPM No. 11 (2004): Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests ISPM No. 21 (2004): Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests. To help countries understand and implement these standards, an international advisory group of PRA experts was established to develop a training course and training materials designed to increase countries' understanding of PRA standards and capacity to conduct PRA.