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Incursion: An isolated population of a pest recently detected in an area, not known to be established, but expected to survive for the immediate future [ICPM, 2003]

Introduction (of a pest): The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment [FAO, 1990; revised ISPM 2, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

Official control: The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests [ICPM, 2001]

Outbreak: A recently detected pest population, including an incursion, or a sudden significant increase of an established pest population in an area [FAO, 1995; revised ICPM, 2003]

(ISPM5 Glossary of phytosanitary terms)

(Available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.)

Portuguese and Vietnamese (Unofficial translations) are also available.

IPPC Guides and training materials

  • Emergency Preparedness: A guide for developing contingency plans for outbreaks of quarantine pests
    The guide outlines the main components of both generic and pest-specific contingency plans and provides guidance on how NPPOs, in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, can effectively organize and allocate resources to eradicate or effectively contain pest outbreaks. The guide also discusses criteria for establishing and maintaining pest freedom, pest reporting and includes several country case studies.
  • Prevention, preparedness and response guidelines for Fusarium Tropical Race 4 (TR4) of banana
    The guide focuses on emergency preparedness and preventing the introduction and spread of Fusarium TR4. It provides relevant biological and scientific information that should be considered when developing a response plan and includes elements relevant to pest risk analysis, implementing phytosanitary measures, official diagnostics and surveillance.
  • e-learning course on Pest Risk Analysis (Available in English)
    The aim of this course is to present the interest and principles of Pest Risk Analysis (PRA). This course informs experts on the steps of the process, the necessary resources, and the importance of having usable national data.
  • e-learning course on Surveillance and reporting obligations (Available in English)
    This e-learning course will introduce key concepts related to pest surveillance, pest status determination and pest reporting, particularly as it relates to new pest detections and emerging pests. It will provide practical guidance to assist NPPOs in strengthening their national surveillance systems and surveillance activities to support early pest detection, pest monitoring and pest status determination. It will also provide specific guidance to help NPPOs to develop a national reporting system for reporting the occurrence, outbreak and spread of pests. 
  • Surveillance Guide (2nd edition) (Available in English and Spanish)
    The International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) no. 6 (Surveillance) refers to the components of survey and monitoring systems for the purpose of pest detection and the supply of information for use in pest risk analyses, the establishment of pest free areas and, where appropriate, the preparation of pest lists”. A national plant pest surveillance programme should be conducted in line with this standard to ensure that its results are accurate, credible and contribute to national goals and priorities. This guide addresses aspects of policy and management, which together should outline the rationale for the establishment of a national plant pest surveillance programme.

Contributed resources

This web page was last updated on 2023-03-24. For further information please contact [email protected].


This reference standard is a listing of terms and definitions with specific meaning for phytosanitary systems worldwide. It has been developed to provide a harmonized internationally agreed vocabulary associated with the implementation of the IPPC and ISPMs.

Country information

The country page shows the contact information of the IPPC Official Contact Points of the IPPC Contracting Parties and local contacts of non-Contracting parties and Territories. Under the contact information, it lists the public national reporting obligations which shall be reported by the contracting parties via this Country page. These obligations include reporting of (1)Designation of an Official IPPC Contact Point, (2)Description of the NPPO, (3)Phytosanitary requirements, restrictions & prohibitions, (4)List of entry points, (5)List of regulated pest, (6)Pest report and (7)Emergency action.

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